Wednesday, January 24, 2018

different aspects of cutrriculum

humanistic curriculum

What is all about humanism
§Problem solving skills
§Relevant lerning
Characteristics of humanistic curriculum
Provide the learner with rewarding experiences that contribute to:
§Personal growth
Role of teachers
§Listen fully t students views
§Respect each students
§Exibit no false pretence or appearance
Psychological Bases of Humanistic Curriculum
Humanistic Learning theory  is the learning theory of self actualization advocates (Hewitt, 2006). The main proponents of humanistic learning theories are Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. Abraham Maslow has been considered the father of humanistic psychology. He is famous for proposing that human motivation is based on a hierarchy of needs. Abraham Maslow set forth a classical theory of human needs. Ornstein and Hunkins (1998: 125) list the needs in order of importance as follows:
i) Basic psychological needs – needs necessary to maintain life like food, shelter, sleep and water
ii) Safety needs – needs necessary for routine and avoidance of danger
iii) Love and belonging needs- those related to affectionate relations with people.
iv) Self esteem needs – those related to receiving recognition as a worthwhile person.
v) Knowing and understanding needs – those more evident in persons of high intelligence than those of limited intelligence like wanting to learn and organize intellectual relationships.
vi) Self actualization needs – those related to becoming the best person one can be, to develop one’s
fullest potential.
These needs have obvious implications to teaching and learning. A child’s whose basic needs like love or esteem are not met may not be interested in acquiring knowledge of the world. The child’s need for love or esteem takes precedence over learning. From Maslow's perspective, the drive to learn is intrinsic. The following principles of teaching and learning can be derived from humanistic theories.
a) Learners are individuals with diverse needs
Curriculum planners and teachers should consider the needs and interests of the learners in the curriculum decision making process. In the school and classroom step ups Maslow’s needs can be exemplified as follows:
(i) Basic physiological needs – students being well fed, being able to sleep well, being physically comfortable, good seating arrangement, room temperature among others.
(ii) Safety needs – in the classroom safety means a non judgmental atmospheres that accompanies all responses from the students. Students should be free to participate in the teaching/learning situation. Wrong answers should not be disapproved without explanations as to why they are wrong.
(iii) Love and belonging needs – teacher, peer and parental approval. Students’ ideas and efforts should be approved.
(iv) Self esteem needs – Teachers should build self confidence in students by giving them roles to undertake and trusting and encouraging them to do the roles correctly. They should avoid intimidation or threatening students.
(v) Knowing and understanding needs- Having the students develop an interest to advance their studies or e general interest in learning something new.
(vi) Self actualizing needs- for the teacher it may include watching the students blossom, or anti risk taking students starting to participate in class. Learning experiences should help students to obtain joy in learning.
According to Parkay and Hass (2000) the curriculum should equip students with the knowledge, skills, values and disposition that they will find useful both inside and outside the school.One way of achieving this is by choosing learning experiences that are interesting to students because they allow students to be much more involved in the learning process and to be more enthusiastic about being in school (Shiundu & Omulando, 1992; Parkay & Hass, 2000; Henson, 2001). In addition, the main aim of education should be to produce competent, caring, loving, and lovable people. Like adults, learners have their own interests and aspirations. Learner’s interests and aspirations are an important determinant of the curriculum structure and content and hence influence learning effectiveness. An understanding of the interests of learners and the shifting nature of their aspirations enhances the schools ability in developing the creativity and individuality of learners (Shiundu & Omulando, 1992). Humanistic learning theories emphasize the individual and his/her development through reason and encounters with the knowledge of human culture (Hewitt, 2006). Humanistic teachers highlight the personal and socil dimension of education (Ornstein, et al, 2003). On this issue, Kochhar (1992) says that learning experiences have to be related to what children know, what they have done, and what they have seen. This is how the teacher’s can create interest in the learning experiences. Learning should be based on warm, friendly and democratic student, teacher interactions. Coercive and strict disciplinary measures should be minimized. The learning atmosphere should be stress free. There should be a conducive climate for learning such as arranging facilities, providing materials, managing social relationships.
The classroom climate can stimulate or retard learning.

b)The learners’ self concept and self esteem are considered essential factors in learning Humanistic Psychology is concerned with how learners can develop their human potential. Shiundu and Omulando (1992) contend that a learner’s nervous condition has an effect on his mental readiness. Motivation is essential in boosting the learners self concept and self esteem. Motivation is the driving force felt or demonstrated by an individual in carrying out a task. To be motivated means to be moved to do something. Unlike unmotivated people who have lost impetus and inspiration to act, motivated people are energized and activated to the end of a task. Hastings (1996) quoted in Croll and Hastings (1996:55) argue that motivation appears to explain so much that it is important in schools and should be given a priority concern for educational research. They postulate: Motivation seems to explain why some children engage enthusiastically with their work, some misbehave and others sit quietly and do little; why some persevere in the face of difficulty and others give up as soon as the going gets tough; why some make good progress and others make little or none; why some take care with their work and others seem not to care. Ornstein and Hunkins (1998) agree with this and state that a student who is frustrated, distraught, or emotionally upset will learn very little rather he/ she will withdraw or resist. Students self esteem and self concept must thus be recognized as essential factors related to learning. Without good feelings for oneself and without a sense of motivation there’s little chance for effective learning. According to Henson (2001) teachers should build self confidence in learners as students need it to live in a future that will place new demands for them. Students should learn how to deal with uncertainty and ambiguity. In the classroom this can be enhanced by taking risks, making mistakes, using mistakes to learn something instead of hiding from them. Henson (2001:271) gives suggestions through which teachers can boost self confidence in the pupils as follows: Accepting total responsibility for learner’s self concept, focusing on the positive, monitoring the comments that they make, using students support groups in the classroom, identifying strengths and resources, clarifying learners’ vision, setting goals and objectives, taking appropriate action, responding appropriately to feedback, basing the learning on life experiences, discovery, exploration and experimentation. Gabler, Schroeder and Curtis (2003) also suggest that teachers should encourage learners to be independent learners, self initiators, active learners, problem solvers, seekers and finders, a learner learning how to learn and who knows that mistakes are an essential part of the learning process. The teacher role is that of a well prepared facilitator, mentor, and catalyst; someone who learns along with the students.

Wednesday, November 15, 2017


As part of curriculum students of Third semester M Ed visited DIET Palakkad today

different aspects of cutrriculum